Research & Publications

The Intercultural Development Inventory® is used in a variety of research applications by independent IDI Qualified Administrator researchers. Explore our searchable index of publications to learn more about how the IDI has been used.

Our goal is to provide a complete database of articles related to the IDI. Do you have an IDI publication that you would like to share with us? Please let us know!

Wiersma‐Mosley, J. D., & Garrison, M. B. (2022). Developing intercultural competence among students in family science: The importance of service learning experiences. Family Relations, 71(5), 2070-2083.
The study was conducted in the context of family studies. Participants of the study are the undergraduate students enrolled in a family studies program. The study used a control group and an experiment group. Students in the control (n=39, Fall 2018) did not participate in a service learning (SL) project. Students in the ex[eriment group (n=45, Spring 2019), participated in a SL project. The results of the study revealed that students in the control group did show some increase in their ICL but the growth was not statistically significant. Where as students in the experiment group showed a statistically significant increase in the ICL. Also, students in the experiment group participated in five different SL activities, students who participated in the SL project that focussed on adults showed a significant increase in the ICL. Overall the study shows the impact of SL projects.
2022
Quantitative
Human Development
Since 2021

Keywords:

idi

Methodological Approach:

descriptive-statistics, anova
Scott, K. A., & Sandell, E. J. (2022). INCREASING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCY IN STUDY ABROAD MARKETING CLASSES: IMPLEMENTING THE INTERCULTURAL DEVELOPMENT INVENTORY. Marketing Education Review, 1-11.
The study was conducted in a Mid-Western University. The intent of the study was to assess the impact of study abroad program on the intercultural learning gains of the students. The participants of the study were 34 students who were enrolled in marketing course. The course prepared the students for the study abroad. The pre-departure component of the course helped the students to understand the culture of Belize, students were required to complete pre-readings, were also involved in various reflection activities and also completed the pre-IDI assessment. Followed by the pre-departure students participated in a 8 days long study abroad trip to Belize during the study abroad students were provided opportunity to experience the local culture. Upon completion of the study abroad trip students kept helping the companies in Belize for creating marketing materials. Students took their Post-IDI. The results of the study revealed that the intercultural learning of the students increased from pre-test to post test. The increase was significant students moved from lower Minimization to center of the Minimization. Overall the results of the study indicated that intententially structured curriculum helped the students to develop interculturally.
2022
Quantitative
Business, Management, & Leadership
Since 2021

Keywords:

idi

Methodological Approach:

descriptive-statistics, t-test
Lash, M., Madrid Akpovo, S., & Cushner, K. (2022). Developing the intercultural competence of early childhood preservice teachers: preparing teachers for culturally diverse classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 43(1), 105-126.
The study assessed the intercultural competence of early childhood teacher students enrolled in a midwestern university. The study focused on two groups of teachers: Group 1 consisted of 43 students. All 43 students were enrolled in a 5 semester-long early childhood education program. Students participated in various intercultural activities throughout their program and also took a pre-IDI in the first year of the program and post-IDI in their final year. The results of the study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the DO scores for the students as they progressed through the program. The other set of students, Group 2, were nine students enrolled in an early childhood program for eight months, and they also participated in a study abroad trip for three weeks in Nepal. The pre and post-IDI results did not demonstrate any significant increase in the DO scores of the students. There was a marginal increase in the DO scores, but the scores were not significant. The study concluded that bringing in intercultural change in an individual is a long-term process. Also, it requires commitment from the end of the participant and the instructor. Therefore extended programs with interculturally competent instructors are required to help students develop intercultural competence.
2022
Quantitative
Teacher Development
Since 2021

Keywords:

idi

Methodological Approach:

t-test
Eigenmann, P., & Bürki, J. (2022). Diverse Intercultural Competence Assessments at a Swiss University of Applied Sciences. CCBC 2022, 257.
The study emphasized the importance of creating an interculturally trained workforce. The study was exploratory in nature and aimed to conduct a needs analysis for intercultural training programs. The study was conducted in the context of a business school. Therefore, 33 staff/faculty members and 147 students participated. The staff/faculties were divided into two groups FGGM Business School (n=10) and International Officers (n=23). Students were also divided into three groups BSc International Business administration (n=76), BSc Business Information Technology (n=22), and BSc Business Administration (n=49). All the participants were required to take the IDI assessment; the staff was in-person debriefed, whereas the students were required to complete an online debrief session. The results of the IDI demonstrated the DO score of the two faculty groups FGGM Business School (DO=100.6) and International Officers (DO=98). Whereas the three student groups demonstrated lower, DO scores, BSc International Business administration (DO=89), BSc Business Information Technology (DO= 83.6), and BSc Business Administration (DO=90). Further, it was also observed that none of the faculty members were in denial; in the case of FGGM, 30% were in polarization, 40% in minimization, and 30% in acceptance, whereas in the case of international Officers, 21.7% were in polarization, 69.6% in minimization and 8.7% in acceptance. Similarly, in the student groups, it was observed that most students were in either minimization or polarization, while some were in denial. It was also interesting to note that for the student group BSc International Business administration, 1.3 percent of students were in adaptation. The result of this study provided a baseline idea of the intercultural competence level of staff/faculties and students enrolled in the business management program. It also demonstrated the need for developing and implementing effective intercultural initiatives to train faculty/staff and students and move forward towards creating a global workforce.
2022
Quantitative
Business, Management, & Leadership
Since 2021

Keywords:

idi

Methodological Approach:

descriptive-statistics
Bittinger, M., Jin, L., & Dou, X. K. (2022). From Pre-Freshman Abroad to Freshman On-Campus: Examining Intercultural Competence Development Through an Extended Journey. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 34(1), 61-96.
The study focused on the role of a structured curriculum in helping students develop intercultural competence. The participants of this study are pre-freshman students who studied abroad and later joined Purdue as first-year students and were on campus. All the students participated in various activities, readings, and exercises that helped the students to develop an understanding of culture before the study abroad program. During the study abroad program, students went to Peru and were exposed to the Peruvian culture, had the opportunity to stay with host families, and participated in various cross-cultural activities and reflections. After coming back, students participated in an eight-week program. The data was collected from 2017 to 2019. All the students took a pre, mid and post-IDI. The DO scores for all three cohorts demonstrated an increase in the scores. There was a statistically significant increase from i) pre to mid-test, ii) mid to post-test, and iii) pre to post-tests for all the three cohorts. Further thematic analysis was conducted, and the following themes emerged: Enhancing attitudes of openness and curiosity, increasing knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks, improving verbal and nonverbal communication skills and increasing cultural self-awareness, increased confidence and action-taking on intercultural interactions when beginning college. Overall the pre-freshman experience helped the students to develop intercultural sensitivity and competence.
2022
Mixed-Method
STEM
Since 2021

Keywords:

study-abroad

Methodological Approach:

paired-t-test, thematic-analysis-of-various-documents

Intercultural Development

Intercultural Development

Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC)

Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC)

Face-to-Face Learning

Face-to-Face Learning

Virtual Learning

Virtual Learning

Healthcare

Healthcare

Undergraduate Students

Undergraduate Students

STEM Education

STEM Education

Coaching

Coaching

Intercultural Development Plan (IDP)

Intercultural Development Plan (IDP)

IDI Guided Development

IDI Guided Development

Ethics Position Questionnaire

Ethics Position Questionnaire

Higher Education

Higher Education

SILC

SILC

Quasi-Experimental Design

Quasi-Experimental Design

Comfort Providing End-of-Life Care

Comfort Providing End-of-Life Care

ICL

ICL

STEM

STEM

Inventory For Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals-Student Version© (IAPCC-SV)

Inventory For Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals-Student Version© (IAPCC-SV)

Disposition To Forgive Scale

Disposition To Forgive Scale

NEP (New Ecological Paradigm)

NEP (New Ecological Paradigm)

LSS

LSS

Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying

Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying

Reflections

Reflections

MAKSS-R

MAKSS-R

myCAP

myCAP

Group Discussion

Group Discussion

Upper Class-Men

Upper Class-Men

CCSE

CCSE

Experiential Learning

Experiential Learning

Creative Action Methodology

Creative Action Methodology

Religious Orientation Scale-Revised

Religious Orientation Scale-Revised

Spiritual Assessment Inventory

Spiritual Assessment Inventory

Materialism Scale

Materialism Scale

Quest Scale

Quest Scale

Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revise

Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revise

Intercultural Learning (ICL)

Intercultural Learning (ICL)

Speech Therapy

Speech Therapy

Engineering

Engineering

Role of Institution/Instructor

Role of Institution/Instructor

Integration of Intercultural Learning In Nursing

Integration of Intercultural Learning In Nursing

Gratitude Questionnaire

Gratitude Questionnaire

IDI and Reflection Papers

IDI and Reflection Papers

IDI

IDI

Semester Long Study Abroad

Semester Long Study Abroad

VR

VR

Virtual Exchange

Virtual Exchange

Exploratory Study

Exploratory Study

IDI Study Abroad

IDI Study Abroad

Inter-Religious and Intercultural Diversity Program

Inter-Religious and Intercultural Diversity Program

Impact of Professional Development

Impact of Professional Development

Freshman

Freshman

Curriculum Integration

Curriculum Integration

Impact of Study Abroad

Impact of Study Abroad

Living Learning Community (LLC)

Living Learning Community (LLC)

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Audiology

Audiology

EPICS

EPICS

Intercultural Mindset

Intercultural Mindset

Intercultural Competence

Intercultural Competence

Intercultural Sensitivity

Intercultural Sensitivity

Intercultural Learning

Intercultural Learning

Intercultural Competence Among Nursing Students

Intercultural Competence Among Nursing Students

Pre-Training

Pre-Training

Study Abroad

Study Abroad

Case Study

Case Study

N/A

N/A

Thematic Analysis of Various Documents

Thematic Analysis of Various Documents

IDI Instrument

IDI Instrument

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Focus Group

Focus Group

Semi-Structured Interviews

Semi-Structured Interviews

CHI SQUARE

CHI SQUARE

ANCOVA

ANCOVA

Herman Brian Dominence Instrument

Herman Brian Dominence Instrument

Intervention

Intervention

Regression Analysis

Regression Analysis

Experiment and Control Groups of UG Students

Experiment and Control Groups of UG Students

IDI Survey

IDI Survey

Pre-Post IDI Survey

Pre-Post IDI Survey

Analysis of Variance

Analysis of Variance

Technical Action Research

Technical Action Research

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative Analysis

Content Analysis

Content Analysis

Thematic Analysis

Thematic Analysis

Interviews

Interviews

Study Abroad

Study Abroad

ACC&U Rubrics for Scoring Written Responses

ACC&U Rubrics for Scoring Written Responses

Independent Sample T-Test and Thematic Analysis

Independent Sample T-Test and Thematic Analysis

Pre-Post Assessment

Pre-Post Assessment

Pre-Post-Test Design

Pre-Post-Test Design

ANOVA Two Way and Correlation

ANOVA Two Way and Correlation

Multiple Regression

Multiple Regression

Descriptive

Descriptive

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics and Content Analysis

Descriptive Statistics and Content Analysis

Descriptive Statistics and Small Scale Methodological Approach

Descriptive Statistics and Small Scale Methodological Approach

Correlation

Correlation

ANOVA

ANOVA

Descriptive Statistics and Thematic Analysis

Descriptive Statistics and Thematic Analysis

Paired T-Test

Paired T-Test

SAGS

SAGS

Pre-Interviews

Pre-Interviews

Critical Thinking Test Scale

Critical Thinking Test Scale

ANOVA One-Way

ANOVA One-Way

Quantitative

Quantitative

T-Test

T-Test

IDI

IDI
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