Research & Publications

The Intercultural Development Inventory® is used in a variety of research applications by independent IDI Qualified Administrator researchers. Explore our searchable index of publications to learn more about how the IDI has been used.

Our goal is to provide a complete database of articles related to the IDI. Do you have an IDI publication that you would like to share with us? Please let us know!

Jaiswal, A., Sapkota, M. & Acheson, K. Bridging borders: assessing the impact of semester-long study abroad programs on intercultural competence development in undergraduate engineering students. IJ STEM Ed 11, 24 (2024).
Working and interacting with people from diverse backgrounds have become common in Engineering. Research has indicated that engineering graduates face challenges while working with a diverse workforce. Therefore, it is vital for higher education institutions to help engineering students develop intercultural competence skills by engaging them in intercultural learning activities. This study explores the impact of a semester-long study abroad program and its new curriculum on the intercultural learning gains of undergraduate engineering students. The study used a mixed methods design to assess the intercultural learning gains of the students enrolled in a study abroad program.
2024
Mixed-Method
STEM
Since 2021

Keywords:

engineering, international-education, higher-education

Methodological Approach:

pre-post-assessment, thematic-analysis
Jin, L., Jaiswal, A., Jones, D. C., Sapkota, M., McClure, S. N., & Stahl, A. (2024). Enhancing Intercultural Learning in Study Abroad Through an Online Curriculum in Group-Mentored Intervention. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study...
Scholars suggest that study abroad programs must intentionally design and implement intercultural intervention for students’ growth. This study used a mixed-method approach to examine the effectiveness of an online curriculum designed to facilitate the intercultural competence development of semester abroad students. Three theories informed the curricular design and study: the Intercultural Development Continuum, the Intercultural Praxis Model, and the Intercultural Knowledge and Competence VALUE rubric. Using the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) distributed before and after the study abroad experience, the study analyzed data sets for a treatment group with 110 students and a control group with 88 students. The results demonstrated that students in the treatment group achieved a statistically significant higher level of meaningful gains in their IDI scores from pre- to post-test compared to the control group. In addition, students described their growth in specific competencies. These findings contribute to study abroad literature by assessing a theoretically-grounded online curriculum rooted in intercultural theories so as to suggest best practices in group mentoring, stage-based pedagogy, and critical reflection for intercultural competence development during a study abroad program.
2024
Mixed-Method
International Education
Since 2021

Keywords:

international-education, study-abroad, higher-education

Methodological Approach:

acc-u-rubrics-for-scoring-written-responses, descriptive-statistics, paired-t-test, independent-t-test, pre-post-assessment
Baiutti, M., Deardorff, D. K., & Ruffino, R. (2024). International pupil mobility in secondary schools: which variables are most closely associated with the development of intercultural competence? Globalisation, Societies and Education, 1–12
Mobility is one of the key actions within the process of internationalising school education to develop interculturally competent pupils. The study at the heart of this paper – Developing Intercultural Competence Through Adolescents’ Mobility (DICTAM) – seeks to explore which programme design features and individual characteristics are most closely associated with the development of intercultural competence. To reach this goal, a longitudinal study (using open-ended questionnaires and the Intercultural Development Inventory) was conducted with 378 pupils from Italian secondary schools who participated in a mobility programme. Overall findings suggest that different individual characteristics and programme design variables might have a different bearing on enhancing intercultural competence. In our sample, the variables duration (longer is better) and gender (female) are the ones which more likely have a positive impact on intercultural growth.
2024
Mixed-Method
Secondary Education
Since 2021

Keywords:

international-pupil-mobility, intercultural-competence, secondary-school, assessment, internationalization-of-school-education

Methodological Approach:

pre-post-assessment
Jaiswal, A., Jin, L. & Acheson, K. (2024). Evaluation of STEM Program on Student Intercultural Development: Do Intercultural Interventions Work?
Developing an interculturally competent STEM workforce is the need of time. Research has demonstrated that STEM students find it challenging to work with individuals from diverse backgrounds. This study used Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) instrument to understand the intercultural learning gains of technology students by administrating the survey in the program’s first year and final year. The data were analyzed using multivariate statistics to assess the intercultural learning gains of the students. The study results indicate that students demonstrated a statistically significant increase in intercultural competence as they progressed from their first year to their final year of college. The study also indicated that having an intercultural mindset and participating in intercultural activities such as study abroad programs or intercultural mentoring can help students internalize intercultural competence and make meaningful gains on the intercultural development continuum. The study also provides recommendations to help students develop interculturally.
2024
Quantitative
STEM
Since 2021

Keywords:

intercultural-learning, stem-education, undergraduate-students, higher-education

Methodological Approach:

descriptive-statistics, t-test, anova
Back, M. (2023). Identity Work and Intercultural Awareness Through Cultural Excavation: Teacher Candidates Studying Abroad. The New Educator, 19(4), 368–387.
Reflecting upon self-identity is important for teachers and teacher candidates, many of whom have different backgrounds from their multicultural, multilingual students. In this study I analyze data from cultural excavation activities completed by ten teacher candidates during study abroad in Peru, in which they critically reflected upon their own identities in relation to the cultural environments of their study abroad experience. Findings from activities and the Intercultural Development Inventory showed increased intercultural sensitivity among most participants, while focus group responses pointed to the cultural excavation activities as scaffolding this movement. Participant responses also demonstrated increased contextual awareness regarding their and others’ identities, a crucial notion for combatting essentialist conceptions of culture.
2023
Mixed-Method
Teacher Development
Since 2021

Keywords:

study-abroad, peru, autobiography-of-intercultural-encounters, teacher-education

Methodological Approach:

pre-post-assessment

Military

Military

Linguistics

Linguistics

Internationalization of School Education

Internationalization of School Education

Assessment

Assessment

Secondary School

Secondary School

International Pupil Mobility

International Pupil Mobility

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters

Peru

Peru

Culturally Responsive School Leadership

Culturally Responsive School Leadership

Doctoral Students

Doctoral Students

Leadership

Leadership

Staff

Staff

Languages

Languages

Autobiography

Autobiography

Diversity

Diversity

Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism

Reflective Writing

Reflective Writing

International Education

International Education

Intercultural Development

Intercultural Development

Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC)

Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC)

Face-to-Face Learning

Face-to-Face Learning

Virtual Learning

Virtual Learning

Healthcare

Healthcare

Undergraduate Students

Undergraduate Students

STEM Education

STEM Education

Coaching

Coaching

Intercultural Development Plan (IDP)

Intercultural Development Plan (IDP)

IDI Guided Development

IDI Guided Development

Ethics Position Questionnaire

Ethics Position Questionnaire

Higher Education

Higher Education

SILC

SILC

Quasi-Experimental Design

Quasi-Experimental Design

Comfort Providing End-of-Life Care

Comfort Providing End-of-Life Care

ICL

ICL

STEM

STEM

Inventory For Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals-Student Version© (IAPCC-SV)

Inventory For Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals-Student Version© (IAPCC-SV)

Disposition To Forgive Scale

Disposition To Forgive Scale

NEP (New Ecological Paradigm)

NEP (New Ecological Paradigm)

LSS

LSS

Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying

Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying

Reflections

Reflections

MAKSS-R

MAKSS-R

myCAP

myCAP

Group Discussion

Group Discussion

Upper Class-Men

Upper Class-Men

CCSE

CCSE

Experiential Learning

Experiential Learning

Creative Action Methodology

Creative Action Methodology

Religious Orientation Scale-Revised

Religious Orientation Scale-Revised

Spiritual Assessment Inventory

Spiritual Assessment Inventory

Materialism Scale

Materialism Scale

Quest Scale

Quest Scale

Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revise

Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revise

Intercultural Learning (ICL)

Intercultural Learning (ICL)

Engineering

Engineering

Speech Therapy

Speech Therapy

Role of Institution/Instructor

Role of Institution/Instructor

Integration of Intercultural Learning In Nursing

Integration of Intercultural Learning In Nursing

Gratitude Questionnaire

Gratitude Questionnaire

IDI and Reflection Papers

IDI and Reflection Papers

IDI

IDI

Semester Long Study Abroad

Semester Long Study Abroad

VR

VR

Virtual Exchange

Virtual Exchange

Exploratory Study

Exploratory Study

IDI Study Abroad

IDI Study Abroad

Inter-Religious and Intercultural Diversity Program

Inter-Religious and Intercultural Diversity Program

Impact of Professional Development

Impact of Professional Development

Freshman

Freshman

Curriculum Integration

Curriculum Integration

Impact of Study Abroad

Impact of Study Abroad

Living Learning Community (LLC)

Living Learning Community (LLC)

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Audiology

Audiology

EPICS

EPICS

Intercultural Mindset

Intercultural Mindset

Intercultural Competence

Intercultural Competence

Intercultural Sensitivity

Intercultural Sensitivity

Intercultural Learning

Intercultural Learning

Intercultural Competence Among Nursing Students

Intercultural Competence Among Nursing Students

Pre-Training

Pre-Training

Study Abroad

Study Abroad

Independent T-Test

Independent T-Test

Phenomenology

Phenomenology

Two-Sample t-Test

Two-Sample t-Test

One-Tailed Test

One-Tailed Test

Case Study

Case Study

N/A

N/A

Thematic Analysis of Various Documents

Thematic Analysis of Various Documents

IDI Instrument

IDI Instrument

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Focus Group

Focus Group

Semi-Structured Interviews

Semi-Structured Interviews

CHI SQUARE

CHI SQUARE

ANCOVA

ANCOVA

Herman Brian Dominence Instrument

Herman Brian Dominence Instrument

Intervention

Intervention

Regression Analysis

Regression Analysis

Experiment and Control Groups of UG Students

Experiment and Control Groups of UG Students

IDI Survey

IDI Survey

Pre-Post IDI Survey

Pre-Post IDI Survey

Analysis of Variance

Analysis of Variance

Technical Action Research

Technical Action Research

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative Analysis

Content Analysis

Content Analysis

Thematic Analysis

Thematic Analysis

Interviews

Interviews

Study Abroad

Study Abroad

ACC&U Rubrics for Scoring Written Responses

ACC&U Rubrics for Scoring Written Responses

Independent Sample T-Test and Thematic Analysis

Independent Sample T-Test and Thematic Analysis

Pre-Post Assessment

Pre-Post Assessment

Pre-Post-Test Design

Pre-Post-Test Design

ANOVA Two Way and Correlation

ANOVA Two Way and Correlation

Multiple Regression

Multiple Regression

Descriptive

Descriptive

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics and Content Analysis

Descriptive Statistics and Content Analysis

Descriptive Statistics and Small Scale Methodological Approach

Descriptive Statistics and Small Scale Methodological Approach

Correlation

Correlation

ANOVA

ANOVA

Descriptive Statistics and Thematic Analysis

Descriptive Statistics and Thematic Analysis

Paired T-Test

Paired T-Test

SAGS

SAGS

Pre-Interviews

Pre-Interviews

Critical Thinking Test Scale

Critical Thinking Test Scale

ANOVA One-Way

ANOVA One-Way

Quantitative

Quantitative

T-Test

T-Test

IDI

IDI
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